Surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually, but not exclusively, associated with positions on the surface of the Earth, and are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. In order to accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law.
Surveying Engineering involves the application of knowledge to the analysis, design, and execution of surveying and mapping projects and the design of land mapping and information systems. Surveyors rely on an understanding of the science of surveying measurement and analysis, the legal principles of boundary location, the laws related to boundaries and land use, and applicable mathematical and computational theories and principles when performing this work. Positional accuracy, land planning and development concepts pertinent to subdivision of land and property surveys, land record and land tenure concepts as well as earth-related sciences such as geodesy are each a part of professional surveying. Surveying Engineers work for private surveying or engineering firms, for City, County, State or Federal Highway Departments, for State Lands Commissions, for the US Forest Service and for the US Bureau of Land Management.